| Champlain's exact date of birth remains a mystery. We know that he was born in the city of Brouage around 1570. Even his appearance is unknown. No official portrait of the man exists. Although the image on the right is the result of the artist's imagination, it is consistent with the look generally associated to Samuel de Champlain.
1599-1601: Young Champlain navigates with his uncle in the Caribbean and visits several ports of New Spain. He will soon afterwards to become a geographer, like his uncle.
|1608: Since the English are increasing their presence in the Gulf of the Saint-Laurent, Champlain decides to head inland. At the foot of Cap Diamant, Champlain builds the l'Abitation de Québec, destined to become the capital of Nouvelle-France. Originally, he wanted to name the establishment "Ludovica", which means "If it pleases God and the King". A big gallery is built around the wooden building on which men of arms are permanently stationed. A 15-feet large and 6-feet deep pit is dug around the location, outside the palisade.|
| 1609: Champlain leaves with Hurons and Montagnais to explore the surrounding areas. To the South he discovers lake Champlain. To prove his loyalty to his new allies, he participates in a battle against an Iroquois war party. During the battle, Champlain kills one of their chiefs with his musket. The events of this fateful day will result in a century-long hatred between the French and the Iroquois confederation. Below is a drawing of the battle by Champlain himself.
| 1627-1632: Upon returning to France, Champlain learns that the conquest of Québec actually took place after the end of the hostilities between England and France. Champlain begins a judicial battle and even goes to London to ask the help of the French ambassador to save the young colony. Québec is finally restituted to France in 1632 by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
1634: The first recruiting lords arrive with their colonists and found the first seigneuries. It is the birth of the first Québécois families.
1635: The father of Nouvelle-France dies on December 25th. He leaves behind him a young colony that now has everything it needs to grow. The foundation of Québec the first successful colonisation attempt by France. Champlain also leaves us his notes, drawings, maps and his published books that are a gold mine of information and help us learn more about the origins of our country.